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Artiodactyla
White-tailed Deer
A White-tailed Deer.
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla

The Artiodactyla is an order from the Mammalia class. This group includes pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains (mouse deer), deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes, sheep, goats, and cattle.

CharacteristicsEdit

The even-toed ungulates are hoofed animals whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in odd-toed ungulates. The even-toed ungulates stand on an even number of toes; the group's four suborders differ in other characteristics. Suina have retained four toes of fairly equal size, have simpler molars, short legs, and often have enlarged canine teeth that form tusks. Camelids and Ruminantia tend to be longer-legged, to walk on only the central two toes and to have more complex cheek teeth well-suited to grinding up tough grasses.

FamiliesEdit

Image
Name
Common Pronghorn Antilocapridae
A single living species, the pronghorn, sums up the family Antilocapridae. This animal is sometimes considered a living fossil. It shows many primitive traits. Perhaps the most obvious primitive attribute is in that pronghorns shed their horns yearly just like a deer. It is the only living horned animal that does this. All Antilocapridae are members of the Artiodactyla.
Group of Impala Bovidae
The Bovidae is comprised of about 138 species, including the antelope, cattle, bison or buffalo, goats, and sheep of the world. The males of this family, and a few females, have ever growing horns. They are some of the worlds largest land animals and comprise much of the diets of many of the large carnivores of the world. All Bovidae are members of the Artiodactyla.
Bactrian Camel Camelidae
The family Camelidae includes the camels, llamas, vicunas, and guanacos of the world. There are six species of camelids that differ in tremendously. Those found in northern Africa and the Middle East are large, have short course fur, and either one to two fatty humps for water conservation, an adaptation to life in the desert, while those found in South and Central America are medium sized with long soft fur, to aid in the cooler climates of their mountainous environments.
Moose Cervidae
The family Cervidae is comprised of forty-five species of deer. Generally they are slender graceful herbivores whose diet consists of grass bark and twigs. In most species only the male carries antlers. These bony protrusions, that are shed yearly, are used to combat other males during breeding. Some Cervidae, such as Musk Deer, have large canine teeth and no antlers. These specialized teeth take the place of antlers for male competition. All Cervidae are members of the Artiodactyla.
Okapi Giraffidae
The family Giraffidae is made up of only two species; the giraffe and okapi. The giraffe is the tallest terrestrial animal living today and may reach heights of nineteen feet. The horns of giraffe are the most unusual horns of any mammal. They are two, some times three, bumpy hair covered knobs that grow slowly throughout the animals life. Okapis appear to be a cross between a giraffe and a zebra in that they have the small horns of a giraffe and horizontal white stripes on the posterior similar to a zebra. All Giraffidae are members of the Artiodactyla.
Pygmyhippopotamus Hippopotamidae
The family Hippopotamidae contains the Hippopotamuses, or water horses, as it means in Greek. Hippopotamuses are enormous mostly aquatic mammals found throughout sub-Saharan Africa. They are mostly vegetarian but have large tusks used to defend their territory during breeding. Amazingly, more people are killed yearly in South Africa by hippos than by any other animal.
Warthog Suidae
Suidae is the biological family to which pigs and their relatives belong. Up to sixteen species are currently recognized, including the domestic pig Sus scrofa or S. domesticus. They are classified into between four and eight genera. In addition to numerous species of wild pig, the family includes the babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa and the warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus. All of the species are found in the Old World, ranging from Asia and its islands, to Europe, and Africa.
Πεκαρι Ασπροχειλο Tayassuidae
The family Tayassuidae is made up of the four species of peccary found from the southwestern United States to Argentina. Although they may appear somewhat pig-like externally, it is the two lateral hooves that do not touch the ground as well as their complex stomach that differentiate them from the true pigs of the old world.
Url Tragulidae
The family Tragulidae consists of three species of mouse deer, found in Asia and the chevrotain, native to Africa. These small, graceful mammals are very similar in appearance to deer, but lack antlers as well as facial and foot glands.
Moschus moschiferus Moschidae
The family Moschidae is made up of the seven species of Musk deer found in the mountains of southern Asia, notably the Himalayas.Musk deer are more primitive than cervids, or true deer, because they lack antlers and facial glands, and possess only a single pair of teats, a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth and a musk gland.

Extinct Families Edit

Image
Name
Anoplotherium Anoplotheriidae
Anoplotheriidae is a prehistorically extinct family of the order Artiodactyla.They were endemic to Western Europe during the Eocene and Oligocene epochs about 48—23 Ma ago, existing for approximately 25 million years. They disappeared at the beginning of the Neogene, leaving no survivors today.
Choeropotamidae
Choeropotamidae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Tylopoda suborder.
Cainotheriidae
Cainotheridae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Tylopoda suborder.
Restoration Merycochoerus,Promerycochoerus,Brachycrus Merycoidodontidae
This diverse group of stocky prehistoric mammals grazed amid the grasslands, prairies or savannas of North and Central America throughout much of the Cenozoic era. First appearing 48 million years ago during the warm Eocene epoch of the Paleogene period, the oreodonts dominated the American landscape 34 to 23 m.y.a. during the dry Oligocene epoch. But they mysteriously disappeared 4 m.y.a. during the colder Pliocene epoch of the late Neogene period.
Agriochoeridae
Agriochoeridae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Tylopoda suborder.
Oromerycidae
Oromerycidae is a small (both in size and diversity) extinct family of artiodactyls closely related to living camels, known from the middle to late Eocene of western North America.
Restoration Xiphodon gracilis 1863 Xiphodontidae
Xiphodontidae is an extinct family of even-toed ungulates (order Artiodactyla), endemic to Europe during the Eocene 40.4—33.9 Ma, existing for approximately 6.5 million years. They were, most likely, all terrestrial herbivores.
Sanitheriidae
Sanitheriidae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Suina suborder.
Entelodon-Charles R. Knight Entelodontidae
Entelodonts, sometimes nicknamed hell pigs or terminator pigs, are an extinct family of pig-like omnivores endemic to forests and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia from the middle Eocene to early Miocene epochs (37.2—16.3 mya), existing for approximately 20.9 million years.
Restoration Indohyus Raoellidae
Raoellidae is an extinct family of semi-aquatic artiodactyls in the Suborder Cetancodonta. Fossils of raoellids are found in Eocene strata of South and South-East Asia.
Messelobunodon schaeferi Dichobunidae
Dichobunidae is an extinct family of early artiodactyls known from the early Eocene to late Oligocene of North America, Europe, and Asia. Dichobunidae includes some of the earliest known artiodactyls, such as Diacodexis.
Helohyidae
Helohyidae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Suborder Cetancodonta.
Cebochoeridae
Cebochoeridae is an extint family from the order Artiodactyla in the Suborder Cetancodonta.
Anthracotherium magnum Anthracotheriidae
Anthracotheriidae is a family of extinct, hippopotamus-like artiodactyl ungulates related to hippopotamuses and whales. The oldest genus, Elomeryx, first appeared during the Middle Eocene in Asia. They thrived in Africa and Eurasia, with a few species ultimately entering North America during the Oligocene.
Amphimerycidae
Amphimericidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Tragulina Infaorder.
Prodremotheriidae
Prodremotheriidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Tragulina Infaorder.
Restoration Protoceras Protoceratidae
Protoceratidae is an extinct family of herbivorous North American artiodactyls that lived during the Eocene through Pliocene at around 46.2—4.9 Ma., existing for approximately 41.3 million years.
Hypertragulus calcaratus Hypertragulidae
Hypertragulidae is an extinct family from the order Artiodactyla, endemic to North America, Europe, and Asia during the Eocene through Miocene, living 46.2—13.6 Ma, existing for approximately 32.6 million years.
Praetragulidae
Praetragulidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Tragulina Infaorder.
Archaeomerycidae
Archaeomerycidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Tragulina Infaorder.
Lophiomerycidae
Lophiomerycidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Tragulina Infaorder.
Climacoceras gentryi Climacoceratidae
Climacoceratidae ("Ladder Horns") is a family of superficially deer-like artiodactyl ungulates that were restricted to the Miocene of Africa. They are close to the ancestry of giraffes, with some genera, such as Prolibytherium, having originally identified as being giraffes.
Leptomeryx Leptomerycidae
Leptomerycidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Pecora Infaorder.
Gelocidae
Gelocidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Pecora Infaorder.
Restoration Dromomeryx Palaeomerycidae
Palaeomerycidae is an extinct family from the order Artiodactyla, probably ancestral to deer and musk deer. They lived in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia from the Eocene to Miocene epoch 55.8 to 5.3 Ma, existing for approximately 50.5 million years.
Hoplitomerycidae
Hoplitomerycidae is an extint family from the Artiodactyla order in Pecora Infaorder.
Restoration A. mongoliensis Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
Andrewsarchus mongoliensis was a mammal that lived during the Eocene epoch, roughly between 45 and 36 million years ago. It had a long snout with large, sharp teeth and flat cheek teeth that may have been used to crush bones.

Gallery Edit

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