Systematics and EvolutionEdit

Living Species and Recent ExtinctionsEdit

The number of extant penguin species is debated. Depending on which authority is followed, penguin biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae. Some sources consider the white-flippered penguin a separate Eudyptula species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the little penguin the actual situation seems to be more complicated. Similarly, it is still unclear whether the royal penguin is merely a color morph of the macaroni penguin. The status of the rockhopper penguin is also unclear.

Subfamily Spheniscinae – Modern penguinsEdit

Aptenodytes – Great penguinsEdit

King Penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus
Emperor Penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri

Pygoscelis – Brush-tailed penguinsEdit

Adélie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae
Chinstrap Penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica
Gentoo Penguin, Pygoscelis papua

Eudyptula – Little penguinsEdit

Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor
White-flippered Penguin,  Eudyptula albosignata (provisional)

Spheniscus – Banded penguinsEdit

Magellanic Penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus
Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti
Galapagos Penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus
African Penguin, Spheniscus demersus


Yellow-eyed Penguin, Megadyptes antipodes
†Waitaha Penguin, Megadyptes waitaha]],

Eudyptes – Crested penguinsEdit

Fiordland Penguin, Eudyptes pachyrynchus
Snares Penguin, Eudyptes robustus
Erect-crested Penguin, Eudyptes sclateri
Western Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome
Eastern Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes filholi
Northern Rockhopper Penguin, Eudyptes moseleyi
Royal Penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli (disputed)
Macaroni Penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus
†Chatham Penguin, Eudyptes chathamensis

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